12- Create automated tests

·

3 min read

Are you a beginner in the world of automated testing and looking to boost your testing efficiency? Automated tests can save time and effort while ensuring the quality of your code. In this beginner's tutorial, we'll guide you through the process of creating and running automated tests for your Python application. Learn how to add test methods, import modules, and create shortcut functions to streamline your testing process. Follow these steps to improve your testing efficiency and ensure the reliability of your code.

To create a test, put the following in the polls/tests.py file:

pythonCopy codeimport datetime

from django.test import TestCase
from django.utils import timezone

from .models import Question


class QuestionModelTests(TestCase):

    def test_was_published_recently_with_future_question(self):
        """
        was_published_recently() returns False for questions whose pub_date
        is in the future.
        """
        time = timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30)
        future_question = Question(pub_date=time)
        self.assertIs(future_question.was_published_recently(), False)

To run the test, use the following command in the cmd:

py manage.py test polls

You should see something like this:

Found 1 test(s).
Creating test database for alias 'default'...
System check identified no issues (0 silenced).
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 1 test in 0.001s

OK
Destroying test database for alias 'default'...

To test the behavior of the method more comprehensively, add two more test methods to the same class:

def test_was_published_recently_with_old_question(self):
    """
    was_published_recently() returns False for questions whose pub_date
    is older than 1 day.
    """
    time = timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(days=1, seconds=1)
    old_question = Question(pub_date=time)
    self.assertIs(old_question.was_published_recently(), False)

def test_was_published_recently_with_recent_question(self):
    """
    was_published_recently() returns True for questions whose pub_date
    is within the last day.
    """
    time = timezone.now() - datetime.timedelta(hours=23, minutes=59, seconds=59)
    recent_question = Question(pub_date=time)
    self.assertIs(recent_question.was_published_recently(), True)

Add an import to polls/views.py:

from django.utils import timezone

Then, edit the get_queryset() method like so:

def get_queryset(self):
    """
    Return the last five published questions (not including those set to be
    published in the future).
    """
    return Question.objects.filter(
        pub_date__lte=timezone.now()
    ).order_by('-pub_date')[:5]

Then, add the following to polls/tests.py:

from django.urls import reverse

Now, create a shortcut function to create questions as well as a new test class by adding the following code to polls/tests.py:

def create_question(question_text, days):
    """
    Create a question with the given `question_text` and published the
    given number of `days` offset to now (negative for questions published
    in the past, positive for questions that have yet to be published).
    """
    time = timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=days)
    return Question.objects.create(question_text=question_text, pub_date=time)


class QuestionIndexViewTests(TestCase):
    def test_no_questions(self):
        """
        If no questions exist, an appropriate message is displayed.
        """
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 200)
        self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_question_list'], [])

    def test_past_question(self):
        """
        Questions with a pub_date in the past are displayed on the
        index page.
        """
        question = create_question(question_text="Past question.", days=-30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_question_list'],
            [question],
        )

    def test_future_question(self):
        """
        Questions with a pub_date in the future aren't displayed on
        the index page.
        """
        create_question(question_text="Future question.", days=30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_question_list'], [])

    def test_future_question_and_past_question(self):
        """
        Even if both past and future questions exist, only past questions
        are displayed.
        """
        question = create_question(question_text="Past question.", days=-30)
        create_question(question_text="Future question.", days=30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_question_list'],
            [question],
        )

    def test_two_past_questions(self):
        """
        The questions index page may display multiple questions.
        """
        question1 = create_question(question_text="Past question 1.", days=-30)
        question2 = create_question(question_text="Past question 2.", days=-5)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_question_list'],
            [question2, question1],
        )

Automated testing can be a valuable tool for beginners to improve their testing efficiency and ensure the reliability of their code. By following the steps outlined in this beginner's tutorial, developers can learn how to create and run automated tests for their Python applications. The tutorial covers topics such as adding test methods, importing modules, and creating shortcut functions to streamline the testing process. By using automated tests, developers can save time and effort while ensuring the quality of their code.

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